About Diabetes Diet. Diabetes is an endocrine disease that occurs as a result of the complete or partial insufficiency or deficiency of the insulin secretion of the pancreas. As a result, because glucose (sugar) cannot enter the cells and be used, its value in the blood increases.
High blood sugar causes dangerous complications by damaging nerves, blood vessels and organs. These complications; It causes serious problems in the nervous system, kidneys, eyes, heart and feet.
Diets of diabetics should be arranged according to the age, height, body weight, physical activity and nutritional habits of the patient. Therefore, the diet should be personal.
It is very important to establish a regular meal plan to prevent fluctuations in blood sugar. Carbohydrates are the most important nutrient affecting blood sugar. The important thing is how much carbohydrate-containing foods are taken in main and snack meals.
Enough carbohydrates should be taken at each meal to avoid sudden drops or spikes in blood sugar. Especially, patients using pre-meal insulin or using insulin pumps should know their carbohydrate count.
This should allow the dose to be adjusted based on the amount of carbohydrates they take at the meal and their blood sugar levels.
Blood sugar level is regulated by medication and diet therapy. Most diabetics are faced with weight problems. This means that they cannot control appetite by keeping meal breaks too long and thus eating too much at the other meal. It can be caused by a constant craving for snacking and dessert.
Uncontrolled and rapid weight loss of diabetic patients can cause electrolyte loss and blood sugar imbalance. It can lead to rapid progression of diabetes-related complications.
The diet plan of diabetics should generally comply with the following rules:
Irregular meals or skipping meals can cause excessive blood sugar (hypoglycemia), followed by excessive rise in blood sugar (hyperglycemia) due to excessive food intake.
So what can we do to prevent this?
About Diabetes Diet: For adequate and balanced nutrition, make sure to eat 3 main meals and 3 snacks every day.
If you consume a sugary food such as fruit in a snack, it will be healthier to consume it with half a glass of yogurt or 1 glass of buttermilk.
Pulp is also very important for diabetics. Pulp has a great role in diabetic diets because it increases blood sugar slowly and has a positive effect on blood fats. To increase pulp in daily nutrition;
Prefer brown breads such as whole wheat, rye or whole wheat bread instead of white bread.
- Consume legumes at least 2 times a week.
- Consume at least 2 servings of vegetable dishes a day.
- Always consume lean salad with your meals.
- Instead of the juice, eat the fruit itself.
- Prefer to consume unshelled fruits with the peel.
So what should we stay away from?
About Diabetes Diet: You should not consume foods such as sugar and sugary sweets, honey, jam, molasses, ready-made fruit juices, cake, donuts, cakes, cookies, chocolate, halva, as they increase blood sugar quickly.
You should stay away from fried foods, delicatessen products such as salami, sausage and soudjouk.
Studies show that individuals with diabetes should, on average, get about 45% of their calories from carbohydrate, 36-40% from fat, and 16-18% from protein.
According to the recommendations of ADA (American Diabetes Association); For diabetic patients, a diet program that generally contains at least 130 g of carbohydrates, saturated fats are less than 7% of the total calories and polyunsaturated fats are at the same rate. Two or more fish should be consumed per week. It is recommended that patients take 14 g of fiber per 1000 kcal.
Diabetes Diet What should we stay away from
Maintaining blood sugar values; It is achieved through both the control of calorie intake and weight loss. Since 80-90% of type 2 DM patients are obese, the goal is to reduce the patient’s hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance by losing weight.
For this, calorie restriction, snacks, timing of meals should be adjusted, nutritional change lists should be learned. To improve glycemia, dyslipidemia and blood pressure values of individuals with type 2 diabetes. They need to reduce their intake of energy, saturated and trans fat, cholesterol and salt and increase their physical activity.
Weight loss applications are not recommended for pregnant women. However, for obese women with overweight or gestational diabetes (GDM), a mild to moderate energy and carbohydrate restriction may be appropriate. GDM then increases the risk of type 2 diabetes for both mother and baby.
Lifestyle changes aiming to increase the weight loss and physical activity of the mother before and after birth should be made.
Proper nutrition is very important in the treatment of diabetes. A personalized nutrition program should be applied and it should be turned into a lifestyle.